A leading figure in nineteenth-century Italian landscape painting. An exile in Geneva from 1850, he assimilated the romantic style and naturalism of France, exhibiting in Paris from 1859 and, after 1861, in Turin and Florence. He influenced the Rivariani and Macchiaioli. Close to A. Ravier, he was renowned for the lyricism of his contrasts of light and subtle effects. He was struck by Turner's paintings when he went to London in 1866. A lecturer at the Albertina in Turin from 1869, he was increasingly rejected by the critics until his rediscovery in 1892 by Divisionists and Symbolists. The artist's posthumous bequest is now the property of GAM.